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How do pilots judge hitting the end of a runway without using ILS?

There are always visual cues which the pilot is trained on.

When I was training on HAL Kiran, this is what my instructor taught me.

After maintaining the height and speed requirements at each stage, which is something like this:

600 feet – 110 knots

500 feet – 105 knots

400 feet – 100 knots

300 feet – 95 knots

200 feet – 90 knots

Now, this not the exact figure, this is just an example.

While I maintain and check my airspeed during the landing approach, I was told to maintain a visual cue.

This is the Kiran Cockpit. Exactly above the dashboard and all instruments is a small pipe that is responsible for demisting in the cockpit.

Look at the runway!

See the first set of piano keys ( the white stripes).

So , while maintaining the specified speed at each height, I was told to make sure the demist pipe pointed between the first set of long piano keys and the next set of piano keys.

This way my touchdown will be at the beginning of the runway.

There are many other visual cues as well.

Remembering the height/speed parameters and maintaining a correct visual cue helps in touching down correctly at the beginning of the runway.

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